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U.S. Grand Lodges that Permit Business on the 1st Degree

I am attempting to compile all details about United States Grand Lodges concerning adoption or proposals to (a) allow Lodges to conduct business on the 1st or 2nd, rather than the 3rd or MM degree, and/or (b) allow Grand Lodges to conduct business on the 1st or 2nd degrees. I am not including Grand Lodges outside the U.S., since I have been told that almost all of them permit or require Lodge business to be done on the 1st degree.   U.S. Grand Lodges that do not appear on this chart require business, or Stated meetings, to be on the 3rd or M.M. degree, but may allow Lodges to open on the 1st or 2nd degrees for degree work.

If anyone wants to send me email, especially if any of the information on this chart is not correct or if you know of additional jurisdictions that allow, or have considered allowing, business on the 1st Degree, you can send me email by clicking on my name Paul M. Bessel.

 


Click here to see a research paper on this subject, prepared for presentation at Pythagoras Lodge of Research, F.A.A.M., District of Columbia, February 29, 2000


Grand Lodges Where Business Can Now be Done on the First Degree
# Grand Lodge Date of Action & Proceedings Citation Details
1 Connecticut

Apr. 1, 1987
1987 Connecticut Proceedings, page 101

Grand Lodge voted to allow Stateds on any degree, but only MM's vote.
2 Missouri Sept. 27, 1994
1994 Missouri Proceedings, pages 60-61
Section 7.060 of the G.L. Bylaws now says: A STATED COMMUNICATION requires that the lodges open on the first, second and third degrees.
3 Washington June 13, 1996
1995/1996 Washington Proceedings, pages 89-90, 290-291
Resolution said a significant number of EA's, FC's, and MM's fail to progress, if they can attend and participate in Lodge business their interest and knowledge may increase at an earlier time and they will be more likely to continue as active Masons, doing business on the 3rd degree was an innovation in the U.S. in 1843. The WM decides on which degree to open a meeting. Only MM's who have passed their proficiency can vote on certain items.
4 Idaho Sept. 20, 1996
1996 Idaho Proceedings, page 80
Idaho voted to allow lodges to open and conduct
business on any degree at the discretion of the Master. There is an exception that balloting on petitions may only be done on the 3rd degree. Masons below the rank of Master Mason are not allowed a vote and may debate only at the discretion of the Worshipful Master. This action was probably taken in 1996 or 1997.
5 Colorado January 1997 I do not have details yet.
6 Kansas Implemented by GM edict, and approved by Grand Lodge, in March 1997. Previously rejected, 1988 Proceedings, page 130. Reported in the book, Freemasonry Universal, by Henderson and Pope. Confirmed by email from a WM in Kansas to Paul M. Bessel, February 2000.
7 Arizona June 7, 1997
1997 Arizona Proceedings, pages 47-49, 161-163
Resolution said restricting attendance at stated meetings to MM's deprives EA's and FC's of fellowship and activity. Says business will be done in lodge of EA, FC, or MM, decided by the WM, but only MM's can vote and hold office.
8 Nevada Nov. 11, 1997
1997 Nevada Proceedings, pages 68-71 (also see 1998 Nevada Proceedings, pages 89-92)
In 1997, adopted a resolution saying all business, except conferring of the FC and MM degrees, shall be done in a Lodge of EAs, but only MMs who are members of a lodge may vote in that Lodge. In 1998 (and again in 1999), rejected a resolution to allow the WM to conduct business meetings on any of the 3 degrees, so they must be on the EA degree, except for conferring of degrees.
9 Alabama 1998
I do not know the Proceedings citation for this action
There had not been anything requiring business on 3rd degree. GM in 1998 pointed this out, and GL voted to allow business on any degree.
10 Minnesota April 15-17, 1999
Not published in Proceedings yet
Resolution said present rules exclude EA's and FC's from attending stateds of lodge they have joined, while they are subject to discipline already, it is desirable to include new members as soon as possible, educational programs will be of interest to new members. Allows WM to open on any degree, but only MM's can vote.
11 Oregon June 4, 1999
1999 Oregon Proceedings, pages 138, 266-267
WM permitted to open Stated meetings on EA or FC degree to permit EAs and FCs to attend, without benefit of being voting members.
12 Montana 1999
Not published in Proceedings yet
By vote at the Grand Lodge Communication, and GM Dispensation, 13 lodges were granted authorization, from Oct 1, 1999, to May 1, 2000, to conduct business on EA or FC degrees if a brother of that degree is present. At the Grand Lodge session in June 2000 a proposal will be considered to permit all lodges to conduct business while open on any degree.

I have been informed that the GL of Montana began allowing all lodges to conduct business on the EA or FC degrees at the option of the WM in 2000 (Article VII, Section 30010 of the Montana Masonic Code).

13 Maryland Nov. 15, 1999
Not published in Proceedings yet
At the discretion of the Worshipful Master, a Lodge may be opened in any of the three degrees and all business except that which relates specifically to a
particular degree may be transacted in the Lodge sitting in any of the three
degrees. Provided, however, that only Master Masons who are members of the
Lodge may cast a ballot, vote, or participate in debate on any matter coming before the Lodge or exercise any other right or privilege of membership relating to the business of the Lodge.
14 New Mexico March 2000 The Southern California Research Lodge reported (6/15/2000) that the GL of New Mexico adopted conducting business on any degree at its meeting March 2000
15 Utah I do not know I do not have details
16 District of Columbia November 4, 2000 WM may open and conduct business on any degree, but only MMs can vote or exercise other privileges of Lodge membership.
17 Massachusetts date not known Grand Lodge voted to allow Stateds on any degree, but only MM's vote.
18 Michigan 2005  

 

Grand Lodges Where Business on the First Degree is Known to be Under Consideration
Grand Lodge Details Date of Next Grand Lodge meeting
Alaska Resolution says EA's and FC's have enthusiasm which wanes while they wait, present arrangements allow little time for members and new members to get acquainted. Would allow WM to open and do business on any degree, but only MM's could vote. At the April 7-9, 1999, meeting, this resolution was "carried over"
Illinois Provisions to permit business to be done at a Stated on any degree, with voting restricted to MMs, is on the agenda to be considered at the next Grand Lodge session. This proposal might be laid over for a year, unless the GM requests immediate action. Oct. 8-9, 1999
New York From the New York Grand Lodge magazine, Summer 1999:
A Proposal to open Lodge on the First Degree for all communications, was referred to the Committee on Jurisprudence and the Custodians of the work for further study.
May 1-2, 2000
Oklahoma Nov. 10-11, 1995, Grand Lodge rejected a proposal that said it would be in the best interest of lodges and Masonry to have new brethren active in lodges, in the past all business was done in EA lodges, and opportunities for relationships best found in activities of lodges, so WM could open Stateds on any degree, but only MM's could vote. This year the GM appointed a committee to look into this subject. In Nov 1999, the Grand Lodge voted on this subject again (with EAs and FCs not to vote in lodges open on those degrees except on degree proficiencies or during Masonic trials in those degrees). It received a majority in support, but not the 2/3 vote needed for adoption.  See details below, under "Oklahoma."  
Texas The GM of Texas recommended that the GL of Texas initiate a study of whether the GL of Texas should permit lodges to conduct business in the EA degree.  This is scheduled to be voted on in December 1999. Dec. 1999

 

Grand Lodges Where Business on the First Degree has been Considered but Not Adopted
Grand Lodge Details
Montana It has been reported that the GL of Montana has considered this issue several times, most recently around 1996. It failed adoption by 4 votes, needing 2/3 for adoption.
See 1997 Montana Proceedings, page 110-111, 158-159.
Texas It has been reported that the GL of Texas has voted on proposals to allow business on the 1st degree several times, and it failed adoption by about the same number of votes each time.

The GM of Texas recommended that the GL of Texas initiate a study of whether the GL of Texas should permit lodges to conduct business in the EA degree.  This is scheduled to be voted on in December 1999.

Indiana GM ordered lodges to open on EA for Stateds. This was voted on at the next Grand Lodge meeting (1999), where it was not approved.

At the 2000 Grand Lodge meeting, a resolution to permit Lodges to conduct business in degree of its choice was rejected. 

Louisiana The Southern California Research Lodge reported (6/15/2000) that the GL of Louisiana rejected a proposal to allow lodges to conduct business on the 1st degree, at its meeting February 2000

 

Alabama
Message via email Jan. 14, 1999, from the GM of Alabama in 1997-1998 said: There has never been anything in the Constitution and Edicts of the Grand Lodge of Alabama to prohibit the lodges from conducting their business in any lodge they chose. Last year I, as the sitting Grand Master, pointed this out to the lodges, and most lodges in the upper part of the State of Alabama are now using this practice on a regular basis, but a lot of the lodges in the lower part of the State chose not to do this. It is strictly the choice of the WM... and his lodge. It is extremely time saving and I believe if the Brethren who have just received their EA or FC degrees can see what we actually do, it will make them want to finish their degree work and become an active member of the Fraternity. I believe if you bring a newly made Mason into your lodge and tell him how much he means to you and how proud you are of him, AND THEN turn around and tell him to go off and spend all this time to study a lesson, AND THEN if you think he has done a good enough job THEN he can sit in your lodge. This is not a very Fraternal way of treating a man who you just told how much you appreciated. There are of course at this time, certain things a Lodge must do in a Master Mason Lodge only, i.e., voting on a petition for one thing, and a few others. By the way, this decision was presented at our GL session in November and it passed overwhelmingly by the subordinate Lodge in Alabama. Fraternally, Steve J Brownfield 32* KCCH, Past Grand Master GL of Alabama 1997-1998. Another message said: The GM last year declared lodges could conduct business in any degree after the chairman of the Committee on Masonic Jurisprudence stated that it was not prohibited by our law.

Alaska
From Grand Lodge Website - the following resolution was to be considered at the Grand Lodge session April 7-10, 1999, in Fairbanks (according to the Alaska Grand Lodge website, this resolution was carried over):
Carryover Resolution No. 98-3
To Amend Sections 14.03 and 14.04 Bylaw of the Alaska Masonic Code
To the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Alaska:
STATEMENT OF PURPOSE: To permit Lodge business and balloting to be transacted when open on any degree.
RESOLUTION:
WHEREAS, newly initiated Entered Apprentice and Fellowcraft Masons have energy and enthusiasm toward Masonry and are assets to a Lodge; and,
WHEREAS, it generally takes several months before newly initiated Masons are passed to the Sublime degree of a Master Mason and their enthusiasm wanes as they languish in obscurity; and,
WHEREAS, with the present arrangements there is little time for Lodge members and the new members to get acquainted; and,
WHEREAS, it is very desirable to have new members attend Lodge meetings and to get involved in the workings and programs of the Lodge; and,
WHEREAS, this would encourage more participation in Masonry and Lodge activities;
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that Section 14.03 of the Alaska Masonic Code which now reads:
Section 14.03 Bylaw BUSINESS ON THIRD DEGREE AT STATED COMMUNICATION Business is transacted and balloting is done only when a Lodge is open on the Third Degree at a Stated Communication. Proceedings while open on the First and Second Degrees may only be such as appertain to the work and lectures of those degrees, or the taking of testimony upon charges preferred against and Entered Apprentice or a Fellowcraft.
be amended to read:
Section 14.03 Bylaw
LODGE BUSINESS. Lodge business may only be transacted and balloting may only be done at a Stated Communication. The Worshipful Master may open the Lodge and transact the business of the Lodge on any Degree. Master Masons who are members in good standing of that Lodge are the only members present who may vote on lodge business.
And, BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that Section 14.04 which now reads:
Section 14.04 Bylaw
VOTING BY ALL MEMBERS. All members present must ballot on the following questions:
1. A petition for the degrees or for affiliation;
2. The acceptance or rejection of charges for a Masonic trial; and
3. The expulsion or suspension of a member.
A member, by unanimous consent, may be excused from balloting on No. 1. A vote of all members present is not required on other business matters.
be amended to read:
Section 14.04 Bylaw
VOTING BY ALL MEMBERS. All Master Masons present who are members in good standing of the Lodge must ballot on the following questions:
1. A petition for the degrees or for affiliation;
2. The acceptance or rejection of charges for a Masonic trial; and
3. The expulsion or suspension of a member.
A member, by unanimous consent, may be excused from balloting on No. 1. A vote of all members present is not required on other business matters.
Respectfully submitted,
Waiter T. Williams, PM (7)
Henry R. Ferguson, PM (7)
Russell W. Sanders, PM (7, 20)
Stanley Woodin, PM (3, 7, 8, 20)
Charles C. Corbin, PM (7, 20)
Roger Hansen, PM (7, 20)
Terrence B. Quarton, PM(7, 17, 20)

Report of Jurisprudence Committee. This Resolution is in proper form for consideration by Grand Lodge. The Committee does not express an opinion as whether this resolution should or should not be adopted.
As a Carryover Resolution to amend a Bylaw, it will require a simple majority vote for adoption.

Arizona
Message via email Jan. 15, 1999, said: The Grand Lodge of Arizona passed legislation permitting the WM of a lodge to decide (without having to consult with anyone else), prior to a Stated Meeting, which degree to open on, conduct business and close. The WM has the choice of any of the three. This legislation is used more in some lodges than others tending to depend on the number of EAs or FCs they have recently initiated and/or passed. It allows EAs and FCs to sit in lodge, become familiar with how business is conducted and how we, as members, interact with one another, and become habituated to attending lodge. Another result has been that it often means that more members will attend the 2nd and/or 3rd degrees because they have gotten to know the EA or FC by sitting in lodge with him before he is Raised. EAs and FCs are prohibited from balloting on petitions for degrees or applications for affiliation. They may vote on business matters, but so far no one has objected since there us usually only one or two in a lodge at any one time, so no one needs fear that a bunch of EAs or FCs will "take over." S&F Donald Monson, DGM
Reference: Arizona Grand Lodge Proceedings 1997, pages 47-49, 161-163 (June 7, 1997)

California
California Does not permit business to be conducted in any other degree than the third. The only business that can be conducted on the 1st or 2nd degrees is the conferral of those degrees and examination for proficiency in those degrees.

Colorado
I have been informed that the Grand Lodge of Colorado permits its lodges to conduct business on the 1st or 2nd degrees.

Connecticut
Message via email Jan. 14, 1999, from a PGM of Connecticut said: Connecticut allows its lodges to open and conduct business on any degree. This was not done by a GM's edict, but by vote by the Grand Lodge to change the regulations. This has proven to be a time saver, helped with attendance, and made the newly made Mason feel that he belongs. Time saver because lodge is opened and closed on the degree to be worked. After the degree work with the new Brother present, the lodge conducts its business (only MM's can vote). The elimination of calling off and calling on does save time and has helped with attendance by eliminating what many believed to be unnecessary and therefore boring to them. The new Brother feels like he's a member of the body because he's allowed to see and hear what takes place - in fact, many Masters allow the new Brother to enter into the discussions even though he can't vote. The only exception to the above would be if part of the business was to vote on a petition. In this case the non- Master Mason would be asked to leave. After the balloting, he would be allowed to return. Message via email Jan. 13, 1999, said: The GL of Connecticut permits its lodges to open and conduct business on any of the 3 degrees at the discretion of the WM. Only MMs may vote, but there is nothing in the regulations forbidding EAs or FCs from discussions.

Idaho
Idaho voted to allow lodges to open and conduct business on any degree at the discretion of the Master. There is an exception that balloting on petitions may only be done on the 3rd  degree. Masons below the rank of Master Mason are not allowed a vote and may debate only at the discretion of the Worshipful Master. This action was probably taken in 1996 or 1997.

Illinois
Code 221. Nothing shall be done in any lodge while opened on the first or second degree except what
appertains to the work and lectures of those degrees, or the taking of testimony upon charges preferred
against an entered apprentice or fellow craft.
Code 225. When degree work follows a stated meeting, a lodge cannot revert back to business which
requires a final vote of the lodge.

Indiana
A message on the Philalethes Society Listserv message on Jan. 10, 1999, said, "current Grand Master ordered all lodges to open on the EA degree for Stated Meetings. This order will expire at Grand Lodge unless the next Grand Master extends it, or Grand Lodge makes such a change permanent." It appears this was done on Jan. 9, 1999. The next meeting of the Indiana Grand Lodge is scheduled for May 1999.

At the Grand Lodge meeting, this was not approved, so lodges in Indiana are not permitted to do business on any degree other than the 3rd.

Kansas
Freemasonry Universal, an excellent book for Masons who travel, reports: The GL of Kansas permits its lodges to conduct business in the first degree.

Maryland
At its meeting on November 15, 1999, the following was adopted:
"At the discretion of the Worshipful Master, a Lodge may be opened in any of the three degrees and all business except that which relates specifically to a particular degree may be transacted in the Lodge sitting in any of the three degrees. Provided, however, that only Master Masons who are members of the Lodge may cast a ballot, vote, or participate in debate on any matter coming before the Lodge or exercise any other right or privilege of membership relating to the business of the Lodge."

Minnesota
From Grand Lodge Website - the following resolution is to be considered at the Grand Lodge session April 15-17, 1999, in St. Paul (according to an email message, this resolution was adopted):
RESOLUTION NO. 1, 1999
GENERAL REGULATION AMENDMENT
STATED COMMUNICATIONS
Where As: The Masonic Manual of Minnesota provides on page seven that "A stated communication must be opened on the Master Mason degree and seven members of the Lodge must be present", and
Where As: This excludes Masons who are Entered Apprentices or Fellowcrafts from attending the stated communications of the lodge which they have joined, and
Where As: Article XII, Paragraph 3.154, of the General Regulations states that "he becomes subject to Masonic law and discipline when elected, but not a member of the Lodge until he is made a Master Mason", and
Where As: Newly initiated Apprentices must now wait until conferral of the Master Mason degree to attend lodge meetings, which could be a waiting period of several months, and
Where As: It is desirable to include newly initiated Apprentices in the activities of the lodge as soon after their initiation as possible, and
Where As: The recommended new meeting agenda provides opportunities for educational and informative programs which will be of interest and benefit to a newly initiated Mason, and
Where As: The ceremony of opening a stated meeting has no effect on the business therein transacted,
Now therefore be it resolved that: Section G13.10 of the General Regulations be amended by adding the following as the first paragraph of Section G13.10: "A Stated Communication may be opened on any degree at the discretion of the Master of the Lodge and seven Master Masons must be present. All Masons who have attained the degree upon which the lodge was opened may be present, including Entered Apprentices and Fellowcrafts, and shall have voice, but only those who have attained the degree of Master Mason shall be considered members and have a vote in the business of the Lodge," and
Be it further resolved that future printings of the Masonic Manual of Minnesota be revised accordingly.
Respectfully Submitted,
Gerald E. Rhoads
Grand Pursuivant

Missouri
Message via email Jan. 13, 1999, said: At the 1997 session of the Grand Lodge [Sept. 29-30, 1997], CHAPTER II, Article 7, SUBORDINATE LODGES, 7.060. STATED COMMUNICATIONS, was changed to read: "...All business may be transacted while the lodge is at Labor on any degree. (1997-60)"
Reference: Missouri Grand Lodge Proceedings 1994, pages 60-61 (September 27, 1994)

Montana
Message via email said:
The GL of Montana has several times considered allowing lodges to conduct business on the 1st degree, the last time 2 years ago. It failed by about 4 votes (needing a 2/3 majority to pass.)

Nevada
In November 1997, adopted a resolution saying all business, except conferring of the FC and MM degrees, shall be done in a Lodge of EAs, but only MMs who are members of a lodge may vote in that Lodge.

New Jersey
From an email message:
the business on 1st degree I'm confused on, we open on 3rd, do business then close 3rd, open 2nd or 1st, do degree, candidates remain and we close on 2nd or 3rd whichever. While were not suppose to do business at end I have heard a number of minor things that would be business but no objection. That also started as GM edict about 5 years ago and looks like it can be called custom now. It is at the option of the Master so some of the lodges still open 3rd, suspend do degree, run candidate out, then back to 3rd to close but is only because they don't realize they have a option.

New York
From the New York Grand Lodge magazine, Summer 1999:
A Proposal to open Lodge on the First Degree for all communications, was referred to the Committee on Jurisprudence and the Custodians of the work for further study.

Oklahoma
The GL of Oklahoma has rejected a proposal to allow Lodges to conduct business on the 1st Degree. Message via email Jan. 14, 1999, reported: The Grand Master appointed a committee this year to look into changing this so that business could be conducted on the EA degree.
Reference: Oklahoma Grand Lodge Proceedings 1995, pages 126-128 (November 10-11, 1995)

The following was considered in 1999:

WHEREAS: It is the best interest of a lodge and of Masonry that newly initiated and passed brethren should become active and take an interest in the affairs of their lodge; and,

WHEREAS: Opportunity to form friendship and relationships between the newly initiated or passed brothers and the members of the lodge is best found during the activity of the lodge; and,

WHEREAS: In ancient time, all business of the lodge except the conferring of a Fellow Craft or Master Mason Degree was done in a Lodge of Entered Apprentices; and,

WHEREAS: Most international jurisdictions and many States of the United States regularly conduct business in the entered Apprentice Degree and gain much benefit from this practice,

NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that Section U-307 of the Uniform Code, which now reads:

SECTION U-307. QUORUM-BUSINESS: No meeting of a lodge can be held unless five (5) Master Masons are present, four (4) if the lodge membership is less than fifty (50), who are members of that lodge, one (1) of whom must be the Worshipful Master or a Warden of that lodge. All business except the examination of candidates, voting on their proficiency, conferring degrees and the trial of Entered Apprentices or Fellow Crafts shall be done in a lodge of Master Masons.

If less than seven (7) Master Masons are present, the Worshipful Master shall declare the lodge opened and closed for business purposes only without following the prescribed ritual. The Flag salute, opening and closing 
prayers must be given.

BE AMENDED TO READ:

SECTION U-307.BUSINESS

A. QUORUM: No meeting of a lodge can be held unless five (5) Master Masons are present, four (4) if the lodge membership is less than fifty (50), who are members of that lodge, one (1) of whom must be the Worshipful Master or a Warden of that Lodge.

B. ATTENDANCE: The business of the lodge may be conducted in a lodge of Master Masons, Fellowcrafts or Entered Apprentices at the discretion of the Worshipful Master. The examination of candidates, voting on their 
proficiency, conferring degrees and the trial of Entered Apprentices or Fellow Crafts shall be done in a lodge open on the appropriate degree.

C VOTING: Only Master Masons may vote, except in these instances:
a) Voting on Proficiency
b) Trials

D. OPEN/CLOSING: If less than seven (7) Master Masons are present, the Worshipful master shall declare the lodge opened and closed for business purposes only without following the prescribed ritual. 'The Flag Salute, 
opening and closing prayers must be given.

The above is a transcription of the Resolution as put to the Grand Lodge. All of the remarks given before the ballot was for the resolution. There were no negative comments given. Although the ballot registered a majority 
of votes, the Resolution Failed due to a less than two-thirds majority. 

Texas
Message send via email Jan. 14, 1999, said: This proposition [to allow Lodges to do business on the 1st Degree] has been presented at our Grand Communications for a number of years and it has failed by almost the same number of votes each year. It most probably will reappear at the next one and probably will result with the predictable vote.

Washington
Freemasonry Universal, an excellent book for Masons who travel, reports: Washington permits its lodges to conduct general business in the first degree. A message via email Jan. 14, 1999, reported: A Lodge may transact its business and conduct balloting when at labor on any Degree at a Stated Communication. When one or more First or Second Degree Masons desire to attend, the Worshipful Master, at his discretion, may open Lodge on the appropriate Degree. All enrolled members may vote on matters coming before the Lodge except that only Master Masons who have passed their proficiency may vote on the following: (1) petitions for membership, (2) elections of Lodge Officers, (3) changes in Lodge By-Laws, (4) matters relating to Masonic trials and discipline, and (5) other matters where the Code refers to a vote by a "member" or "members". (This was a revision in the code as of 1996.)
Reference: Washington Grand Lodge Proceedings 1995/1996, pages 89-90 (June 8, 1995), 290-291 (Jun3 13, 1996)


Letter from The Builder magazine, July 1916 edition

AN UPRIGHT MASON

Dear Brother Newton:

[irrelevant part of letter skipped]

In regard to the communication, "An Upright Mason," I was very much in the same predicament as Brother Gayle, Iowa, over your explanation. And I regard your explanation in this April number as still more disappointing. I have always been satisfied that the system practiced in Pennsylvania regarding the preparation of the candidate for the several degrees is logically more in line with ancient Masonry than in some other jurisdictions. Having brought a candidate to light he is never again blinded. He has received light in Masonry and though his sight may be untrained and inexperienced yet it is light. In Ohio we take from the novitiate that which we so gladly gave him at the altar in the Entered Apprentice Degree. It is depriving him of that which is his of right. Also, in all jurisdictions, I believe, we place the candidate in the northeast corner of the room and assure him he is an upright Mason. Here, Pennsylvania again can instruct other jurisdictions. Objections can be made without reasons up to the point where the novitiate comes to light as an EA but ever after can be estopped in his Masonic progress only by a trial after charges have been preferred.

There is no doubt that it was due to the popular movement in the second decade of the 19th Century, at Baltimore, that work was taken from the EA Degree and placed in the the MM Degree. Up to that time all EAs heard the transactions of the lodge, though they may have been debarred from a vote on the same. When a candidate has once pressed the threshold of Masonry he has changed his relations forever. Brother Waite in his Lecture this month has beautifully demonstrated that point. Will you not take another look at the question and grant to our EA brethren their Masonic right?

Fraternally,

Charles F. Irwin, Ohio.


 


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