Lincoln
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Abraham Lincoln and Freemasonry (1)

by Paul M. Bessel (2)

November 1994

Abraham Lincoln was not a Mason, but he possessed and displayed all the important qualities of Freemasonry: faith, hope, and charity, belief in God, the equality of all people, and the ability of each person to improve. He came into contact with many Masons and Freemasonry was a greater influence in society then than today. What, then, was his view of Masonry, and would he and Masonry have benefited from his membership? Why did he not become a Mason? How did Masonry affect his life and career?

Lincoln's Attitude Toward Freemasonry --

How Lincoln and Freemasonry Would Have Benefited from his Membership

Direct evidence about Lincoln and Masonry

The Grand Lodge of Illinois recessed their meeting being held during the 1860 Presidential campaign to call on Abraham Lincoln, a candidate in that election, and he is reported to have said, "Gentlemen, I have always entertained a profound respect for the Masonic fraternity and have long cherished a desire to become a member..." (3)

When a Mason told Lincoln in a conversation during that campaign that all his opponents were Freemasons, especially noting that Stephen A. Douglas was an early member of the Masonic lodge in Springfield, Lincoln's home town, and he was not, Lincoln replied, "I am not a Freemason, Dr. Morris, though I have great respect for the institution." (4)

After Lincoln's death, the Grand Master of Masons in the District of Columbia, Benjamin B. French, who had been a friend of Lincoln's, wrote to the editor of The Masonic Trowel, who was also the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, "He [Lincoln] once told me how highly he respected our Order and that he at one time had fully made up his mind to apply for admission into it..." (5)

Brother French also wrote to the Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York, in response to a similar inquiry, "President Lincoln ... once told me, in the presence of MW Brother J.W. Simons, that he had at one time made up his mind to apply for admission to our Fraternity but he feared he was too lazy to attend to his duty as a Mason, as he should like to do, and that he had not carried out his intentions...." (6)

Carl Sandburg said, in a chapter about Lincoln's political activities in his biography of Lincoln, "Though not a Mason, he [Lincoln] had at hand a personal copy of the bound 'Proceedings of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the State of Illinois,' being reports of conventions of the Masonic order for the years 1851-1857." (7)

Why Lincoln should have been a Mason

There are many reasons for Lincoln to have had a positive view of Freemasonry. A qualification to become a Mason is a belief in a Supreme Being, while leaving it to each one to decide exactly what religious beliefs to hold, and Masonic ritual includes many references to the Bible and the concept of spiritual rebirth.(8) Lincoln, too, had a fervent belief in God.(9) He was an avid student of the Bible, and included Biblical references in many of his writings and speeches, the most famous being his second Inaugural address, and he regarded the entire subject of religion as a matter of individual conscience.(10) Lincoln could have been expected to have been attracted to Freemasonry's attitude of support for religion combined with strong support of freedom of religion and conscience for all people. Spiritual rebirth was one of the special concepts alluded to in Lincoln's Gettysburg address.(11)

One of the fundamental tenets of Masonry is that it seeks "to make good men better." This belief would have appealed to Abraham Lincoln, who desired to see the best in people and to see that each individual could advance in life as much as possible. Likewise, the Masonic support of equality and the brotherhood of all people were also fundamental ideals with Lincoln. Masonry examines the meaning of death, and Lincoln frequently meditated on this. Freemasonry, in the 1800's even more than now, focuses on philosophy -- what are the long-term purposes and goals of our lives. Lincoln, who talked of America as being the beacon of hope for mankind and who said the goal of the Civil War was to insure that free government would survive in the world, would have been interested in this Masonic tradition.(12)

There are more mundane reasons to think that Abraham Lincoln should have been a Mason. Freemasonry and other fraternal organizations are typical places for politicians for become well known. Lincoln was one of the most ambitious politicians of his day, and he could have benefited from this connection. Lincoln also had an active law practice, and if he had been a Mason more people might have come to know and appreciate his legal abilities. Another reason to think Lincoln should have wanted to become a Mason is his desire for fellowship. Lincoln enjoyed the company of other men and strongly desired acceptance from society. He should have welcomed the opportunity to be with men who are such close friends as to consider themselves Masonic brothers. He would have had the opportunity to share humorous stories, discuss philosophical issues, and exchange information about their experiences. Lincoln enjoyed politics in all its senses, and he would have likely risen to a prominent office within Freemasonry. That would have satisfied his ambition in some way, as well as helping him achieve prominence in the community. It would have shown, as Lincoln did in other ways, that one born without any likely prospects for success in life could achieve much that even those who were more high born did not.

Lincoln's relations with individual Masons

Lincoln's personal associations should also have led him to seek to join the Masons. Bowling Green was a close friend of Lincoln and one of the most prominent men in New Salem, Illinois, Lincoln's first home town.(13) Green was also Master of the local Masonic lodge and a member of the original Grand Lodge of Illinois. Mrs. Green and Green's Masonic brethren requested that Lincoln speak at Judge Green's funeral,(14) which included Masonic services, in February 1842, and Springfield Lodge No. 4 invited Lincoln to give a speech at a memorial service for Green in September.(15) As described by Carl Sandburg:

"...one day there came news that hurt Lincoln. Bowling Green was dead.... He [Lincoln] rode out to the Green home; he stayed till the day of the funeral. Though he was not a Freemason, word came to him that the Masons, who were to conduct the funeral, wished him to make some remarks on the character and life of Bowling Green.

On the day of the burial the Masons in white aprons gathered in the Green cabin, the chaplain carrying the open Bible, the tyler his drawn sword and other regalia of the Masonic brotherhood. The master of ceremonies finally called Lincoln to the head of the coffin." (16)

Besides Bowling Green, many of the important men of New Salem, Springfield, and nearby areas with whom Lincoln was in contact were Masons, including Stephen A. Douglas, who was an active member of the Masonic Lodge in Springfield,(17) Ninian Edwards, and James Shields. The best man at Abraham Lincoln's wedding to Mary Todd was James Matheny, a member of the Springfield Masonic Lodge and a past Master of the Grand Lodge of Illinois. Lincoln's closest neighbor, James Gourley, was also a Mason, as were other friends and business associates.(18) Even the fiance of Ann Rutledge, reported to be Abraham Lincoln's first true love, was Junior Warden of a local Masonic Lodge.(19) Thus, it is clear that Abraham Lincoln was familiar with many Masons, saw Masonry in action at least during the funeral of his good friend Bowling Green, and therefore it cannot be said that Lincoln did not seek to become a Mason because he was not familiar with Freemasonry.

Lincoln's idol in politics was Henry Clay, a U.S. Senator and Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, candidate for President several times, and one of the most influential Americans of the first half of the 1800's. Henry Clay was the Grand Master of Masons in Kentucky in 1820-1821. It should be noted, though, that in 1830 and 1831, during the height of the influence of the Anti-Masonic Party in American politics, Clay said he had been inactive for many years. Clay was then seeking the Presidency. He might have helped his chances by specifically denouncing Masonry, but he refused to do that.(20) Since Henry Clay was Lincoln's role model in politics, it would be reasonable to expect that Lincoln would have been influenced by Clay's Masonic involvement -- rising to the level of Grand Master of Kentucky, and Clay's refusal to denounce Masonry even when that action could have helped him politically -- to join the Masons and seek a leadership position, if only to help himself politically.

For many reasons, then, one would think that Lincoln should have wanted to become a Mason, and that he would have been welcomed if he applied. He said he had a favorable attitude toward Freemasonry, his words and actions showed a devotion to ideals similar to those of Masonry, the philosophy of Masonry is similar to the beliefs Lincoln supported, membership in the Masons probably would have helped Lincoln in his political and legal careers and would have bolstered his desire to be accepted by others and to enjoy friendly fellowship, and Lincoln came into contact with, and admired, many Masons. Becoming a Mason was, in Lincoln's time, a normal action for community leaders with political ambitions, especially those, like Lincoln, who thought about the deeper meaning of life.

Why Didn't Lincoln Become a Mason?

Speculation on the reasons Lincoln did not become a Mason falls into several categories.

Reasons given by Lincoln and those who knew him

Lincoln is reported to have told the members of the Grand Lodge of Illinois during the 1860 campaign for U.S. President that:

"I have never petitioned because I have felt my own unworthiness to do so. I might be overcoming my hesitance and be petitioning at the present time but I am a candidate for political office, and by some such action would be misconstrued. For this reason, because my motives would be misconstrued, I must for the present time refrain." (21)

After Lincoln's death, a friend of his who was a prominent Mason said Lincoln had once told him the reason he did not seek membership in Freemasonry was that, "I (Lincoln) feared I was too lazy to do all my duty as I should wish to were I a member, and I have kept postponing my application." When the friend said it was not too late, he said Lincoln laughingly replied, "Well, perhaps some day I may ask you to let me in." (22)

Mary Todd Lincoln replied, in October 1860, to a letter from a minister who was a member of an anti-Masonic faction in the Ohio Republican party who said he would not support Lincoln unless he could be convinced that Lincoln had never belonged to a secret society. She said, "Mr. Lincoln has never been a Mason or belonged to any secret order, since he has been a man, he has had no time to devote to any thing out of the line of his business, even if he had been so disposed." (23)

Edwin M. Stanton, Lincoln's Secretary of War, was an avid Freemason. He wrote that he once elicited Lincoln's views of Masonry and Lincoln was noncommittal. (24) Perhaps Lincoln did not have strong feelings either way about joining the Masons.

Lincoln might have avoided Masonry because of unfortunate, but interesting, incidents with a couple of Masons.

Lincoln and James Adams

In May 1837, Lincoln took on one of his first legal cases, representing the widow and son of Joseph Anderson in their effort to take possession of, and sell ten acres of land presumed to have been owned by him at the time of his death. However, James Adams, Anderson's former attorney and an officer of the Springfield Masonic Lodge, was found to be in possession of the land, basing his claim on a deed executed to him by Anderson. Lincoln felt the conveyance of this land was spurious. At the time of this lawsuit, Adams was running as a Democrat for probate justice of the peace of Sangamon County against a Whig friend of Lincoln's. During the campaign, six letters were printed in the local newspaper, written by Lincoln and insinuating fraud by Adams, and a few days before the election Lincoln wrote and distributed handbills in Springfield which stated explicitly that Adams obtained the Anderson land by fraud. Adams responded to these charges, and Lincoln in turn published replies. The affair was bitter and public. Lincoln said Adams spread rumors that Lincoln was a deist, rumors that caused Lincoln political harm in the future. In the meantime, Adams won the election, and the contested land was still in Adams' estate when he died six years later. James Adams was a Master of the Springfield Lodge in 1839 and was elected Deputy Grand Master of Masons in Illinois in 1840. Lincoln might not have wanted to join a lodge in which Adams was a prominent member, and Lincoln might not have received unanimous approval to be accepted into the Springfield Lodge after his 1837 run-ins with the prominent Mason James Adams.(25)

Lincoln and James Shields

A few years later Lincoln had problems with another Mason, James Shields. He was an Irish immigrant who settled in Illinois and became an active Mason in January 1841. Shields was a Democrat who became state auditor in 1841. Lincoln and the Whig party protested his policies, and several satirical letters appeared in the Springfield newspaper questioning Shields' honesty and mocking his physical courage. Shields was told that Lincoln had written these letters,(26) and he challenged Lincoln to a duel. All of Springfield read Shields' published challenge, and there was great excitement about the upcoming duel.(27) Lincoln attempted to end the dispute with a partial explanation, but said if a duel was insisted on then he, as the person challenged, would demand that both combatants be in an eight foot circle holding the largest possible cavalry broadswords with neither allowed to pass over a line in the center. These conditions were intended to mock the idea of this duel, especially since Lincoln was so much taller than Shields, but Shields persisted.(28)

On September 22, 1842, Lincoln, Shields, their seconds and others boated across the Mississippi River to fight the duel on Missouri soil, where, unlike in Illinois, dueling was still legal. Fortunately, friends intervened to get Shields to accept Lincoln's explanation and the duel was called off, but Lincoln was mortified by the episode.(29) Shields' and Lincoln's letters and all the details were publicized and the "duelling business" and spirit raged in Springfield afterwards.(30) We can rightly suppose that Shields' Masonic brothers knew all about this affair and possibly assisted him.

It is worth noting that one of the letters which so angered Shields was published in the Springfield newspaper on September 2, 1842, and the very next day Lincoln delivered a speech at the Masonic memorial service for his late friend Bowling Green, at the invitation, probably made in July before the anti-Shields letters were published, of the Springfield Lodge. Then, a letter that was even more insulting to Shields was printed in the newspaper on September 9, and the parties met and almost fought their duel on September 22.(31) It is likely that there was a good deal of tension between Lincoln and Shields' Lodge brothers during this time. Lincoln had been in a highly public feud with one of the leading members of the lodge. This might have made him reluctant to join the Masonic lodge to which Shields and his friends belonged, and they might have rejected him if he had petitioned. This episode, plus the one involving James Adams, might have left Lincoln with negative feelings about Masons in general.

Other possible reasons for Lincoln not joining Masonry

Another possible reason for Lincoln's not becoming a Mason may have been political. In the 1830's there was a very strong anti-Masonic feeling and even an Anti-Masonic party that elected some of its members to state and federal positions. Some politicians gained favor and office by attacking Masonry; many lodges lost members and folded.(32) Becoming a Mason could harm political careers, and even some former Masons took on anti-Masonic attitudes in their speeches. Lincoln might have decided to avoid the opposition of anti-Masons by not joining Freemasonry. However, it should be noted that the Anti-Masonic party had minimal influence in Illinois and neighboring states, and that its influence was largely ended at the time when Lincoln might have been expected to consider becoming a Mason.

Lincoln may have decided not to seek to join the Masons because he thought that would be misconstrued as an attempt to obtain political support from other Masons, or he may have truly felt himself unworthy or too lazy to properly perform his Masonic duties if he joined, or he may have been too busy with his regular business activities, or he may have had poor views of Masons because of his prominent feuds with two of them, or he may have felt that those feuds would lead to his rejection if he tried to join, or he may have felt that anti-Masons would not support his political ambitions if he became a Mason, or he may have just been indifferent toward Masonry. Perhaps the real reason was some combination. Certainly Freemasonry lost the opportunity to include among its members someone who would have fit very well into the Masonic philosophy and who could have assisted Freemasonry if he had so chosen. Perhaps Lincoln also lost something by not becoming a member of the Freemasons, the opportunity to join with others in an organization seeking many of the same basic goals that motivated Abraham Lincoln throughout his life.

How Did Masonry Affect Lincoln?

Masonry's influence on Lincoln through the Declaration of Independence

It is not possible to know if, or how, or to what extent, Abraham Lincoln was affected, directly or indirectly, by Masonry. Some guesses are reasonable, though.

Freemasonry was especially strong in the 1700's, and its philosophy and goals had a strong influence on the founding fathers of the United States, many of whom, such as George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, were active, enthusiastic, and prominent Masons who applied their Masonic ideals in their work.(33) The Declaration of Independence in 1776 stated a fundamental position that was developed in Masonry earlier in the 1700's:

We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

Lincoln in 1861 said:

"I have never had a feeling politically that did not spring from the sentiments embodied in the Declaration of Independence....I have often inquired of myself what great principle or idea it was that kept this Confederacy so long together. It was ... that sentiment in the Declaration of Independence which gave liberty, not alone to the people of this country, but hope to the world for all future time. It was that which gave promise that in due time the weights should be lifted from the shoulders of all men, and that all should have an equal chance." (34)

This is the guiding spirit of the Masonic philosophy, then and now, and it became a part of the Declaration of Independence that in turn affected Lincoln so fundamentally.

Masonry's possibly influence on Lincoln's political career

At least one author believes Lincoln's middle position between Masonry and Anti-Masonry may have helped him gain the Republican nomination for President in 1860. All his major opponents, William H. Seward of New York, Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, and Edward Bates of Missouri, had anti-Masonic histories. Masons, and there were definitely some at the nominating convention, would have been more inclined toward Lincoln than the others.(35)

Except for Lincoln, all the candidates for President in 1860 were Masons: Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridge, and John Bell. The President then, James Buchanan, and other prominent political leaders, were also Masons. The list of prominent people connected with the Civil War and politics in that era who were Masons is very long, including Winfield Scott, George B. McClellan, Robert Anderson, Winfield Scott Hancock,

Benjamin F. Butler, Simon Cameron, Lewis Cass, John J. Crittenden, Andrew G. Curtin, David G. Farragut, Nathaniel P. Banks, John A. McClernand, Thomas H. Benton, John A. Logan, Sam Houston, Stephen A. Hurlbut, Andrew Johnson, Edwin M. Stanton, Gideon Welles, Albert Sidney Johnston, P.G.T. Beauregard, Howell Cobb, John B. Floyd, Albert Pike, Sterling Price, Robert Toombs, Godfrey Weitzel, Henry A. Wise.(36) It is possible that Lincoln saw some of the spirit of brotherly friendship among these Masons, and that their practice of Masonic ideals had some affect on him.

Moral influences

It is well known that Lincoln demonstrated magnanimity even toward his enemies, asking in his second Inaugural address for "malice toward none and charity for all" and desiring an easy peace and for the leaders of the Confederate government to be allowed to escape rather than being arrested and condemned,(37) and his visits and friendly comments to Confederate wounded. Lincoln searched for reasons to reverse the decisions of court-martials calling for executions. Freemasonry also played a role in alleviating the harshness of the Civil War, and this probably came to Lincoln's attention and may have affected his own attitudes to some extent. Masons from both sides got together to exchange information, assist wounded from the other side, and arrange for Masonic burial services for fallen enemies.(38) Some soldiers even escaped death because of their Masonic affiliation.(39) Lincoln and his colleagues who were Freemasons demonstrated charity toward others even while engaging in all-out combat to accomplish goals they felt were worth fighting for -- to maintain democratic government and to prove that people could govern themselves.

Abraham Lincoln was never a Mason, but it is likely that Masonry had some positive influences on him, and he on Freemasonry. His political philosophy was affected by Masonic ideals through the Masonic influence on the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. His spirit of charity during the Civil War was probably affected to some extent by hearing how Masons in the war helped each other while maintaining their ideals. Lincoln was helped in his personal life and his political activities by Masons, from his days in New Salem through the rest of his life. Without overreaching, Masons and all who study Lincoln can rightly take some satisfaction from the involvement of Abraham Lincoln, a non-Mason, and Freemasonry.

Bibliography
the following books and articles were consulted and their material was quoted in the preparation of this paper

article title: "Is This of Your Own Free Will and Accord?"
author: R.V. Havlik
publication: Lincoln Herald
publication date: Fall 1985
page: 66

article title: "Lincoln's 'Duel'"
author: Thomas O. Jewett
publication: Lincoln Herald
publication date: Winter 1987 page: 142

article title: "Chicago 1860: A Mason's Wigwam?"
author: Olivier Fraysse
publication: Lincoln Herald
publication date: Fall 1985
page: 71

article title: "Lincoln and Freemasonry"
authors: Elmer Stein, 33, and Fred Schwengel, 33
publication: The Scottish Rite Journal
publication date: February 1990
page: 21

title: With Malice Toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln
author: Stephen B. Oates
publication date: 1977
publisher: Harper and Row Publishers, New York

title: Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths
author: Stephen B. Oates
publication date: 1984
publisher: Harper and Row Publishers, New York

title: The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln
author: Roy B. Basler, editor
publication date: 1953
publisher: Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey

title: The Astonishing Saber Duel of Abraham Lincoln
author: James E. Myers
publication date: 1968
publisher: Lincoln-Herndon Building Publishers, Springfield, Illinois

title: The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia
author: Mark E. Neely, Jr.
publication date: 1982
publisher: McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York

title: Stephen A. Douglas: Freemason
author: Wayne C. Temple
publication date: 1982
publisher: The Masonic Book Club, The Illinois Lodge of Research, Bloomington, Illinois

title: Lincoln Day by Day: A Chronology 1809-1865
author: Earl Schenck Miers, editor
publication date: 1991
publisher: Morningside House publishers, Dayton, Ohio

title: Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years
author: Carl Sandburg
publication date: 1926
publisher: Harcourt, Brace & Company, New York

article title: "Edwin M. Stanton and Freemasonry"
author: Erving E. Beauregard
publication: Lincoln Herald
publication date: 1993
page: 124

title: The Temple and the Lodge
author: Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh
publication date: 1989
publisher: Arcade Publishing, New York

title: Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia
author: Henry Wilson Coil, 33
publication date: 1961
publisher: Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Company, Inc., New York

title: Mary Lincoln: Biography of a Marriage
author: Ruth Painter Randall
publication date: 1953
publisher: Little, Brown and Company publishers, Boston

title: Mary Todd Lincoln: Her Life and Letters
authors: Justin G. Turner & Linda Levitt Turner
publication date: 1972
publisher: Alfred A. Knopf, New York

title: House Undivided: The Story of Freemasonry and the Civil War
author: Allen E. Roberts
publication date: 1961
publisher: Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., Richmond, Virginia

title: Freemasonry in American History
author: Allen E. Roberts
publication date: 1985
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title: Befriend and Relieve Every Brother: Freemasonry During Wartime
author: Richard Eugene Shields, Jr.
publication date: 1994
publisher: The Carolina Trader, Monroe, North Carolina

title: Rebel: The Life and Times of John Singleton Mosby
author: Kevin H. Siepel
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article title: "An Aftermath of 'Sampson's Ghost:' A New Lincoln Document
author: Wayne C. Temple
publication: Lincoln Herald
publication date: 1989
page: 42

title: The Antimasonic Party in the United States 1826-1843
author: William Preston Vaughn
publication date: 1983
publisher: University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky

Notes

1. Special thanks are due for the friendly and helpful research assistance provided to the author in the preparation of this article by Joan Kleinknecht, Librarian at the Scottish Rite's House of the Temple in Washington, D.C., and to Donald M. Robey, Secretary-Treasurer of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia. The libraries in these two Masonic institutions are amazing treasures for Masonic and other historical research and should be visited, used, and supported by many more Masons and other researchers.

2. The author can be reached at (current address: 3700 Marble Arch Way, Silver Spring MD 20906 - paulb'at'bessel.org ). He is a member of Alexandria-Washington Lodge # 22, which meets in the George Washington Masonic National Memorial, and of the Scottish Rite, York Rite, and Shrine. He is also a member of the Civil War Masonic Association (made up of Masons with an interest in the Civil War), The Philalethes Society and other Masonic research groups, The Lincoln Group of the District of Columbia, and several Civil War Round Tables.

3. "Is This Of Your Own Free Will And Accord?," by R.V. Havlik, at page 66, citing "Abraham Lincoln was not a Freemason," in Lincoln Lore, Number 1595, January 1971.

4. Same as above, at page 67.

5. Same as above, and also citing "Lincoln and the Masons," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Summer 1955, at pages 191-198.

6. "Lincoln and Freemasonry," by Elmer Stein and Fred Schwengel, at pages 23-24.

7. Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years, by Carl Sandburg, volume 2, page 98.

8. See, for example, Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry, by John J. Robinson, at pages 201-223, particularly pages 205 and 218-221; A Pilgrim's Path: One Man's Road to the Masonic Temple, by John J. Robinson; The Craft and Its Symbols: Opening the Door to Masonic Symbolism, by Allen E. Roberts. Also see "Hiram Had to Die -- And So Must You, by Roger A. Kessinger, in The Philalethes, December 1993, at page 3; and "The Dawning of 'Spiritual' Masonry," by Norman Williams Crabbe, in The Philalethes, April 1994, at page 48.

9. See Carl Sandburg's Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Year, volume 2, page 254 and 372.

10. Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths, by Stephen B. Oates, at page 53.

11. Lincoln at Gettysburg, by Garry Wills, at pages 77-78, 88

12. See, With Malice Toward None, by Stephen B. Oates, at pages 31, 76-77; Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths, by Oates, at pages 57-60, 91.

13. Bowling Green was one of Lincoln's best friends in New Salem, Illinois. Green spent hours teaching Lincoln about the law, loaned Lincoln a number of his books to further Lincoln's self-education, permitted Lincoln to try cases in Green's court (Green was a Justice of the Peace) even before Lincoln was a lawyer, and Green and his wife took Lincoln into their home and nursed him back to health when Lincoln was ill. Green also encouraged Lincoln to run for political office. "Lincoln and Freemasonry," at pages 21-22, and Sandburg's biography of Lincoln, volume 1, pages 175 and 288-289.

14. Bowling Green's grave in Oakland Cemetery in Petersburg, Illinois, is marked by a headstone that to this day clearly shows the Masonic square and compasses, as witnessed by the author of this article on a recent visit there.

15. See, "Is This Of Your Own Free Will And Accord?", by R.V. Havlik, at page 69; and "Lincoln and Freemasonry," at page 22.

16. Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years, by Carl Sandburg, volume 1, pages 288-289.

17. Stephen A. Douglas was an active member of his Springfield Masonic Lodge, attending 19 meetings during the first seven months of his membership and being elected Junior Warden. After he moved to Quincy, Illinois, when he was elected a Congressman from that area, it appears that he no longer was a dues-paying or meeting-attending member of a Lodge, but both he and his original Lodge considered him to be a member until his death in 1861. Douglas took higher degrees in Masonry (York Rite) in 1847, and a reported 1,800 Masons conducted a Masonic service at Douglas' funeral. See, Stephen A. Douglas: Freemason, by Wayne C. Temple.

18. "Chicago 1860: A Mason's Wigwam?," by Olivier Fraysse, in Lincoln Herald, Fall 1985, at pages 71-72, citing Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Illinois ..., Chicago, 1857; 10,000 Famous Freemasons by W.R. Denslow; Lincoln's Manager: David Davis, by W.L. King, and Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, volume IV, at page 336.

19. "Lincoln and Freemasonry," at page 23.

20. See, The Antimasonic Party, by William Preston Vaughn, at page 56.

21. "Is This Of Your Own Free Will And Accord?", by R.V. Havlik, at page 66.

22. Same as above, at page 67.

23. Mary Todd Lincoln, Her Life and Letters, by Justin G. Turner & Linda Levitt Turner, at page 67.

24. "Edwin M. Stanton and Freemasonry," by Erving E. Beauregard, in Lincoln Herald, Winter 1993. See especially page 125, citing "Reminiscences," letters from Edwin M. Stanton to Chauncey, Washington City, letter dated August 27, 1864.

25. "Is This of Your Own Free Will and Accord?" by R.V. Havlik, at pages 67-68; and "An Aftermath of 'Sampson's Ghost:' A New Lincoln Document," by Wayne C. Temple, in Lincoln Herald, Summer 1989, at pages 42-47.

26. Lincoln was involved in the writing of these letters, but he was not the sole author. He knew that Mary Todd (later to be his wife) and a female friend of hers had written them, with some advice from Lincoln. See "Lincoln's 'Duel'", by Thomas O. Jewett, at page 142. Also see Collected Works of Lincoln, volume 1, at page 292. Interestingly, the Shields fiasco may have helped bring about Lincoln's marriage to Mary Todd. They had met in December 1839, and became close and apparently engaged during 1840, but the engagement was ended in January 1841 because of fierce opposition by Mary's family who felt Lincoln was beneath Mary socially and that he would not amount to much. Lincoln then went through a terrible depression. They started seeing each other again in the summer of 1842, and the Shields incident in September apparently brought them closer despite the continuing hostility from Mary's family. Lincoln and Mary were engaged in October and married on November 4, 1842.

27. "Lincoln's 'Duel'," by Jewett, at page 142.

28. A witness at the site where the duel was to take place watched Lincoln pick up one of the cavalry broadswords. "He raised himself to his full height, stretched out his long arms and clipped off a twig from above his head with the sword. There wasn't another man of us who could have reached anywhere near that twig, and the absurdity of that long-reaching fellow fighting with cavalry sabers with Shields, who could walk under his arm, came pretty near making me howl with laughter." "Lincoln's 'Duel'," by Jewett, at page 143. Also see, The Astonishing Saber Duel of Abraham Lincoln, by Myers, at pages 15-18.

29. Collected Works of Lincoln, volume I, at pages 291-297 and 299-302; "Is This Of Your Own Free Will and Accord?" by R.V. Havlik, at page 69; Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia, by Mark E. Neely, Jr., at page 277; With Malice Toward None, by Stephen B. Oates, at pages 66-68. Also see, Mary Lincoln: Biography of a Marriage, at pages 57-60, quoting, at page 60, from a letter Mary Todd Lincoln wrote about a social event at the White House during the Lincoln presidency, when a General, "in the course of conversation, said, playfully, to my husband 'Mr. President, is it true, as I have heard, that you, once went out, to fight a duel & all for the sake of the lady by your side.' Mr. Lincoln, with a flushed face, replied, 'I do not deny it, but if you desire my friendship, you will never mention it again.'"

30. Collected Works of Lincoln, volume I, at pages 302-303, where Lincoln wrote to his friend Joshua F. Speed about October duel incidents involving Shields and Lincoln as seconds to others. In Lincoln's words, "...the town is in a ferment and a street fight somewhat anticipated."

31. "Is This Of Your Own Free Will and Accord?", by R.V. Havlik, at page 69. Also see, Lincoln Day by Day, entries for September 1842.

32. The Antimasonic Party in the United States 1826-1843, by William Preston Vaughn.

33. See The Temple and the Lodge, by Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh, at pages 238-39, 252-60. Also see, "Conflicts and Developments in Eighteenth Century Freemasonry: The American Context," by William H. Stemper, Jr., in The Philalethes, October 1991, at page 18.

34. Collected Works of Lincoln, volume IV, at page 240, "Speech in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 22, 1861.

35. "Chicago 1860: A Mason's Wigwam?", by Olivier Fraysse, at pages 71-72, and The Antimasonic Party, especially at page 40..

36. House Undivided: The Story of Freemasonry and the Civil War, by Allen E. Roberts, at pages 333-344.

37. Never Call Retreat: Volume III of The Centennial History of the Civil War, by Bruce Catton, at pages 440-41; The War For the Union: Volume IV... The Organized War to Victory 1864-1865, by Allan Nevins, at pages 290-91; The Civil War: A Narrative, Volume 3: Red River to Appomattox, by Shelby Foote, at pages 855-56.

38. House Undivided, by Allen E. Roberts. Also see Befriend and Relieve Every Brother: Freemasonry During Wartime, by Richard Eugene Shields, Jr., Freemasons at Gettysburg, by Sheldon A. Munn, and "My Enemy, My Brother: An Incident at Gettysburg," by William D. Robertson, in The Philalethes, June 1993, at page 61.

39. Rebel: The Life and Times of John Singleton Mosby, by Kevin H. Siepel, at page 129. Mosby ordered seven Union prisoners hanged in retaliation for the Union's shooting and hanging of seven of his men. Captain R.P. Montjoy, serving under Mosby, recognized two Union prisoners selected for hanging as fellow Masons and substituted two other prisoners for them. Mosby shouted, "Remember, Captain, in the future that this command is not a Masonic lodge." Still, the two Masons were saved and their substitutes were hanged instead.

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